Manual The Mishkat al-Anwar (The Niche for Lights) & Selections from the Poetry of the Afghans

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Sometimes the desired effect is intensified by color contrast; thus the shrine of Shaykh Bagh-i Fin, Salim Chishti, perhaps the most venerated saint in all of Mughal India, at Fatehpur century and later. In modern Fatehpur Sikri, r 6th century. A multiplying factor seems to be at work here. Indeed, light is the enemy in an open courtyard, with an urgent corresponding need for shade-this is a case less of sunlight than of sunblight.

Yet another type of reflected light is a special feature of glass ,mosaic pl. This has a unique richness, for the nature of the component cubes, with gold leaf sand- wiched between transparent glass so that it has a certain depth yet appears to float, gives the gold background plenty of life and character. This introduces a sense of mobility. Moreover, variations between polished and matte cubes, and also in shades of color tones, in the setting of some cubes at various angles to ensure refracted light, in undulating or projecting beds as a setting for the tesserae, in a scattering of black, brown and silver cubes to lighten the density of the gold surface-all of these devices, often working in concert, impart a living, unpredictable glitter to gold mosaic.

The absence of these subtleties in modern restorations of ancient mosaics explains their dead brassy sheen, from which the eye instinctively shies away. Tilework permits some very varied, and distinct, types of reflection. At the simplest level are the random shafts of light generated by cuerdaseca tiles, with their smooth unbroken surface and overall glaze, though here-as in all types of reflection-the effect comes and goes as viewers move and thus change the angle of sight.

Tile mosaic has 66 opposite Moti Mosque, much more sparkle when the sun strikes its surface, since it comprises many small Delhi, 17th century.

But pride of place assuredly goes to luster tiles, which were usually employed for '. Still photo- em, They fix a moment in time, rendering immobile. Luster tiles were especially popular in Sufi shrines in Iran in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Sometimes dpzens of luster tiles were put together to create a huge, fitfully illuminated mihrab, the focus of prayer, in places of worship; at times they towered over three meters high pl.

Nevertheless, carefully placed sources of artificial May Doris Duke light ensured that the reflective powers of this medium were exploited to the full. Foundation for Islamic Art, Honolulu Architects and craftsmen often capitalized on this characteristic in order to secure dramatic visual effects, and occasionally these could be captured in poetry, like the pre-Islamic Yemeni king who built his palace with an alabaster ceiling so that he could lie on his bed and watch the birds disporting them- selves Wightman and Udhari , 8. It is an elaborate, and also totally fallacious, conceit, for while alabaster does indeed let the light in, it is by no means transparent.

In a dim interior, this can make an impact over many meters, and even create the Shrine of 'Ali ibn Binyamin pools of light amidst the darkness, as in the winter prayer hall of the Friday Mosque at Bidakhavid near Yazd, c. Perhaps the most dramatic expression of this idea of the mihrab as a source of light is a yellow alabaster mihrab in the shrine of 'Ali ibn Binyaman at Bidakhavid near Yazd, datable circa pl.

Since this huge block of 70 opposite,top Alabaster expensive stone fills up the entire thickness of the wall into which it is set, its exterior openings in the ceiling of the face can absorb sunlight from dawn to dusk and at the same time reflect that light, winter prayer hall behind the muted but full of power, radiating its messages in the darkness across the centuries. At west iwan in the Friday Mosque, Isfahan, c. Khoury , r2, And it is worth recalling in this context that for the Shia, their Imams both received and emanated divine light Mulder , , which adds a third level of significance to such images.

The Bidakhavid slab is only one of several contemporary examples, as a similar mihrab in nearby Turan Pusht shows. The same tawny alabaster, probably from Ardistan, was much in demand for dados in Safavid buildings. Placed as they were against a surface that did not admit light, they would rather absorb it. Mother-of-pearl, with its distinctive iridescence, was a favored element of Islamic glass mosaic as early as the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem see pl.

Another rare material popularly believed to hold and transmit light, this time in frozen form, was rock crystal; and piers of crystal are recorded at Madinat al-Zahra in al-Andalus al- Maqqari , I, , though it is a safe bet that only part of a pier would display this excessivelyrare material.

Other piers were studded with rubies and other jewels-still more transmitters of light al-Maqqari , II: But pride of place belongs to the kiosk of stained glass built for a Dhu'l-Nunid monarch in Toledo in the nudst of an artificial lake, so designed that the waters of the lake were piped to ripple over it as the ruler sat inside, untouched by the water, while burning wax tapers lit the kiosk from within al-Maqqari , l, But of course the principal agent among these varied materials is gold, which is also pre-eminently suited to reflect light.

From the very beginning of lsJamic architecture, at the Dome of the Rock, the impact of expanses of gold-actually gold leaf on copper-as cladding for domes or for tiles was well understood, despite theological objections Oairazbhoy , The sheer value of such decoration meant that it was liable to be removed in times of dearth, unrest and war, and gradually its use was confined to buildings whose sanctity usually protected them from being plundered.

Undoubtedly the Shii shrines of Iraq and Iran are the principal examples of this fashion pl. This lavish decoration was some- times applied in fulfillment of a vow; in the wake of major conquests or indeed for ecumenical reasons Allan , Gold back- grounds gave heightened significance to the otherworldly Uinayyad mosaics of Jerusalem and Damascus.

It could also highlight a name, a title, or a key portion of the design. Gold was not the only means of creating a strong focus of light with potential spiritual associations. The more imaginative architects knew how to concentrate the impact of a burst of whiteness, as in the snowy cascade of muqarnascells in the mosque of Gawhar Shad in Mashhad Golombek and Wilber , II: pl. LightingDevices Next, the fourth theme, lighting devices. These were quite varied. Their effect was necessarily limited: less a matter of light, perhaps, than of darkness visible.

Candles, either plain or decorated with stellar or solar designs Gray , pl. They could be huge; the museum on the Haram al-Sharif in Jerusalem to the Shrine of preserves two beeswax candles, apparently of medieval date, several meters long, as thick : Mahan, Iran, as tree trunks and of a weight that would require several men to lift.

But the main instruments of interior lighting in medieval times were lamps. The medieval sources record that the Cordoba mosque, for instance, had between n3 and lamps. Some lamps were of pierced metal see pl.

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Despite their beauty, however, they would have been only moderately successful in fulfilling what was presumably their primary purpose, namely to radiate light. Transparent glass was obviously a much more suitable medium for this purpose, and a unique Qur' anic frontispiece of Umayyad date found in San'a shows just how such lamps were used at that time pl. High- necked and globular, undecorated and with a floating wick, they were suspended by chains in rows from the tie beams which spanned the arcades of the sanctuary.

The high-water mark of mosque lamps was reached in Mamluk times, especially in mid-fourteenth-century Egypt, where they bore bold thulth inscriptions blazing forth in the darkness the name of the patron who commissioned them or, much less fre- quently, verses from the Qur' an. Of special importance were bronze polycandela derived from Byzantine prototypes. The more elaborate ones were tiered on an inclined plane so that they to an Umayyad Qur'an manuscript. Sana'a, Dar resembled a pyramid pl. These are especially popular in the Maghrib-many a al-Malthtutat Moroccan madrasa or mosque, such as Taza, still has one in situ.

The empty apertures would project magnified shadows of typically Islamic geometric design. Thanks to the cumulative power of their many tiers of serried lamps, they could transform the impact of a dim interior and were often placed with special care to emphasize given parts of a building, such as the mihrab itself, the bay preceding it, or a long sequence of arcades leading to a vanishing point. Even when they were not lit, the pinpoint of light at the end of a long enfilade of arches would bring the entire arcade to life. The words of Paul the Silentiary's ekphrasisof Haghia Sophia, delivered in , eloquently evoke such vanished splendors: "no words are sufficient to describe the illumination in the evening: you might say that some nocturnal sun filled the majestic temple with light" Mango , In modern buildings electricity has changed all this, and has opened up a vast range of possibilities for the use of artificial light.

These are a study in themselves. Typically, the latter, used as shutters placed r Thus they served a triple purpose, firstly as dense external decoration, secondly as a device for ensuring privacy, and thirdly to filter and tone down strong sunlight. They were made of small pieces of turned wood set into larger designs, mostly of geometric shape-stellar patterns were popular and made it seem as if a window were filled with stars.

Some even depict mosque interiors. The Mamluk period in Egypt and Syria saw the golden age of mashrabiyyawoodwork pl. Much larger wooden screens were used from ,Morocco to Iran as balconies or as dividers between a courtyard and the corridors or chambers adjoining it, and these could yield dramatic floor patterns in slanting sunlight. But similar designs in marble windows inaugurated this fashion in the early eighth century, as can be seen at the Great Mosque of Damascus Creswell , pl.

Furthermore, an apparently inexhaustible range of vegetal motifs, using the 76 opposite Polycandelon hanging in the Great Mosque at identical ajouretechnique, but this time executed in carved stucco, filled the claustra Ka. Clear openings in the walls could translate into strong bars of light patterning walls and floors alike, as in the mosque of Gulbarga in the Deccan Hoag , pl. The most widespread use of screens in Islamic architecture is in the Indian subcon- tinent, especially in the Mughal period. These screens are known as jalis and are usually executed in stone or marble Batley , viii and pl.

Their designs are predomin- antly geometric, but occasionally they bear vegetal designs, as in a celebrated window from the mosque of Sidi Sa' id in Ahmedabad in Gujarat Alfieri and Borromeo , They tend to be set closer to the ground than the mashrabiyyagrilles, which were set within window frames. Jalis have very different roles depending on whether they are viewed from the outside or from within a building.

Viewed externally, they serve as decorative two-dimensional cladding. But their impact on interior space is much more varied pl. If one looks up, the light streams in through clearly defined spaces, each of which encloses a pattern. If one looks down, those patterns are replicated on the floor, crisply if the sunlight is strong, but in a blurred and hazy fashion if it is weak. And in certain conditions of sunlight there is a magnifying and perspectival effect, so that a pattern which is relatively small when it fills a window high up in the build- ing covers a much larger surface area by the time it is projected onto the floor Volwahsen , , 75 and To the person looking out through a jali screen, the world takes on a fragmented, unreal quality, as though one were seeing it at one remove, through a glass darkly.

And lastly, there is something kaleidoscopic about the effects of multiple different jali designs as one moves through a building, in that the patterning on floors and walls changes from one moment to the next. Stained glass set in a window of geometric or vegetal design could add the extra dimension of color to such patterns. Thus light is transformed into decoration.

ExternalRelief Decoration The role of external ornament in Islamic architecture could scarcely be overestimated. Whatever its nature-whether it is vegetal, geometric, or epigraphic, or indeed whether it depicts living creatures, it depends on making the most of the changing sunlight throughout the day, giving a monument a subtly different character from one hour to the.

The sharpness of early morning light, the blaze of noon, the soft contours of twilight, the differences between raking and direct light-such varied conditions can give a building a distinctively different character from one hour to the next, as shown by numerous buildings with brick decoration in the Iranian world pl. The use of brick as both a building material and a decorative medium lent such buildings a for- midable integration. Polygonal tomb towers lent themselves especially well to such ornament, since even slight alterations of plane would catch the sun at a different angle, and thus allow the viewer to enjoy a whole sequence of differently textured panels at [ali in the tomb ti, Fatehpur Sikri, a single glance.

Small wonder that such ornament prompted Edwin Lutyens to exclaim "Speak not of Persian brickwork, but of Persian brick magic. Symbolism Sometimes visual puns drove home the desired message, and it is a pity that this aspect of Islamic architecture has attracted so little notice to date, especially as such puns proliferate in other media such as book painting. Pearls were widely regarded as bearers of light. Similarly, the crescent or cir- cular finials that are so often placed on domes and minarets are often gilded, so of course they catch the sunlight and thus draw attention to the building which they crown, as at Bijapur Gairazbhoy , ;Volwahsen , Numerous references to the rising or setting sun, sometimes using an appropriate color scheme, sometimes not, occur in unexpected contexts, and may echo an adjoining architectural form, like the floor and vault of the royal apse in the bath hall at Khirbat al-Mafjar Hamilton , , ; Ettinghausen , 33, ; Hillenbrand , This same rayed theme found even richer and indeed classic expression in , in the Cordoba mihrab and in the design of the dome directly above it Barrucand and Bednorz , The place of honor for solar puns or sunbursts is just where one would expect it-at the inner apex of a dome, sometimes with gadrooned ribs suggesting the rays of the sun Grabar , , pl.

Many more variations in the design of inner domes could be cited, from the riddling pentangle of the north dome of the Isfahanjmni' Seherr-Thoss et al. Some have read religious and mystical messages into such designs Biirgel , And an occasional inscription supports the notion that light had symbolic associations. Often enough the arch was framed by the very verse 35 to which the image refers, positive proof of the close link between the rnihrab and light, which has generated much theological commentary, of which the Mishkat al-Anwar,often attributed to al-Ghazali, is among the best known Gairdner A substantial case has been made on quite other grounds, rooted in Buddhist and Zoroastrian practice, for this connection Melikian-Chirvani , When 81 opposite,top Interior of entire rnihrabs with this motif are executed in luster ceramic, the labile play of light rhe dome in rhe Lutfallah Mosque, Isfahan, This is not the only symbolic motif associated with mihrabs..

A host of variations Istanbul, The holy name is placed in a semi-circle centered at the base of the mihrab hood with the ribs of the semi-dome performing double duty as solar rays streaming from it. The fac;:adeof the Aqmar mosque in Cairo illustrates several variations on this theme pl. The taste for inlaid marble in Marnluk times allowed the motif to develop further in quite dramatic ways, with the individual rays resembling forked lightning see pl.

Bathhouse domes frequently display star-shaped or circular openings that would have offered to those inside a simulacrum of the heavens, an effect intensified by the dimness within and the strongly focussed light streaming from these openings. The selfsame effect is known in certain Fatimid mausolea, such as the example at Qus pl. In medieval times, lamps were placed at 84 opposite Interior of the dome in a tomb at Qus, rrth or the summit of minarets in the hours of darkness Melikian-Chirvani , ; r2th century. The association of the minaret with light is, then, a tenacious Islamic tradition ,ra, Granada, 14th and etymology merely underlines that fact.

Another such pun is the epigraphic roundel, which mimics the rays of the sun-the association with light and indeed enlightenment is no accident-by placing the letters on the outer rim of an imaginary circle with the shafts all pointing toward the center and thus functioning as rays of light.

The pronounced verticality of such scripts as riq'a and muhaqqaqlent itself particularly well to such designs since it stressed the length of these shafts, and thereby emphasized the parallel with the sun. This could be further underlined by the use of gold for the letters, as in many an epigraphic roundel in Mamluk metalwork which trumpets the ruler's name and titles and, in more subliminal fashion, his divinely ordained legitimacy Hillenbrand , ; Blair and Bloom , 8 and IO, pl.

Such roundels became an Ottoman specialty and were used predominantly at the apex of an inner dome Necipoglu , pls. Thus they had obvious solar connotations pl. It seems appropriate to end with some of the most spectacular manifestations of light in Islamic architecture, all of them in the Alhambra. Thus they specifically encourage a metaphorical reading of their signature lofty muqar- nas domes. The carefully calibrated rationing of light in other medieval muqarnasdomes, from Natanz Seherr-Thoss et al. But the examples in the Alhambra stand out from similar experiments in the expressive power of the muqarnasprecisely by their use of inscriptions to load these forms with extra meaning.

They trap and filter, radiate and reflect light in kaleidoscopic fashion. In the Hall of the Abencerrajes the link with the constellations is driven home in that the entire vault rests on a gigantic eight- pointed star pl. As one looks upward, the eye darts from one pinpoint of light after another as the sun's rays strike, as if at random. The whole mass of scintillating cells, more than 5,ooo of them in this triumph of illusion -for they are not load-bearing-seems to come to life and turn in perpetual motion. Similar mada, 14th ideas are embodied, this time without benefit of words or of a muqarnasdome, in the upper reaches of the Hall of the Ambassadors pl.

This throne room, ensconced in the massive bulk of the tower known appropriately enough as al-Qamariyya "the lunar" , boasts a cedarwood ceiling whose sequentially stepped planes may well be intended to echo the Seven Heavens of the Qur' an. Its dark wood is inlaid with white, blue, and gold stars, crowns and circles large and small, a Milky Way in miniature. It is, moreover, some 75 feet high, and the feeble illumination available in medieval times would have ensured that its upper reaches would have remained shrouded in darkness, but for twinkling pinpoints where the inlaid motifs presumably using bone or ivory, or even paint caught a glimmer of light, thereby strengthening the analogy with the night sky.

This technical tour de force of woodcarving can surely claim to represent the very essence of light in Islamic architecture. This essay has shown that Islamic architecture, which stretches across half the world, expresses a corresponding wealth of responses to the ways that light can adorn, enliven, r This is an architecture that is far more religious than secular in function, and therefore it is not difficult to sense that these buildings so saturated in piety, and proclaiming on their walls the sacred text of the Qur' an, are a silent paean to that God who is the Light of the heavens and of the earth.

Notes 1 See Beelaert , , for an extended discussion of the literary trope of the Kaaba as a woman, and especially , n. Victoria and Albert Museum Al-Mu 'jam al- di seta dal Palazzo Reale di Palermo. Catania: Giuseppe mufahrasli-alfa;;,al-Qur'an al-karfm. Andrae, Tor. MaJ:imildMuJ:iammad 'Abduh. Beirut: Dar seiner Gemeinde. Archives d'Etudes Orientales, ed. Stockholm: P.

Ain-i Akbari, vol. Henri Bloch- Arago, Dominique Franc;:ois. Bibliotheca India New Haven, c. The Koran Interpreted. London: George Allen Afshar, Iraj. Maqiiliit Daniel Alcouffe et al. Paris: Reunion des Musees Nation- al-islamiyyfnwa-ikhtiliif ll-mu,,allzn.

Hellmut Ritter. IslamicArchitec- Asher, Catherine B. Architectureef Mughal India. The ture ef the Indian Subcontinent. Cambridge: Cam- Allan,James W London: Azimuth Internet website with texts of rno major tefszrs.

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Divine Radianceand ReligiousExperience. Matthew T. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag Supplement,pp. Renaissanceof Islam:Art efthe Mamluks. Wash- Amin, Muhammad, M. ArchitecturalTerms in Mamluk ington o. Cairo: The American University in , ed. Arte islamicae mecenatismo:tesoridal Kuwait. Dfviin-i kiimil-iAmzr Khusraw-Dilhavf. Dzvan-i 'A. Nobiles Offidnae:Perie,jiligrane e trame Auld, Sylvia. Robert London: Altajir Trust, pp. Mamluk and Post-Mamluk Metal Lamps. Institut franyais d'archeologie orientale Robert Hillenbrand and Sylvia Auld.

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London: Altajir Trust, Berchem. Reprinted in Opera Minora. Bahari, Ebadollah. Bihzad: Master ef Persian Painting. Geneva, , vol. Tauris Bernus Taylor, Marthe. Washington, o. Sadder Gallery 1-Fazl. Kitab al-jamahir fi Alkindi, O'Malley, SJ. Toronto: University ofToronto Press, pp. Tideus und Pseudo-Euklid: Drei optische vVerke. Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften Bar-Asher, Meir M. Islamic Inscriptions. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Uni- Vogelsang-Eastwood, eds.

Sevruguin's Iran. Rotterdam versity Press and Tehran: Barjesteh, Zaman Cologne: Taschen Qur'an and its Creative Expressions. Fahmida Suleman. Batley, Claude. London: A. Tiranti Institute of Ismaili Studies, pp. Proceedings of the Second Biennial Hamad bin Gallery, 38, pp. London: London: Yale University Press Court. Washington, D. Blochmann, H. Second edition revised and edited by Lieut. Colonel D. Calcutta: Lewis; reprint New Ed.

Milo Beach, Eberhard Fischer, and B. Orientalism's Inter- Cairo," Muqarnas, 1, pp. Durham, N. Andrew J. Leiden and Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. The Minarets of Cairo.

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    MuhammadJuki's ShahnamahefFirdausi. Oxford , and Charles Melville. London and New York: part 1, pp. Tauris Fatimid Art at the Victoriaand Albert Museum. Brisch, Klaus. Eine Untersuchungzur spa- Madrider Forschungen. Egypte De Gruyter fatimide. On the other hand are the lives of poor ordinary rustics and downtrodden. Even in their lives, the childhood exposure to extremes of grave situations will harden their senses and this would enable them to withstand the vagaries of the nature.

    The test and tribulations of life would be their every day experience download Beginning's End pdf. Considered the renovator of Judaism, for his work in fusing philosophical and mystical aspects of the ancient religion, one recent scholar even averred that were it not for the great Maimonides, the Jewish religion itself would have fractured irrevocably into its various constituent parts. It also has its exaggerations, excessiveness, and moderations.

    There is a story of a sick man Muhammad went to visit, the man sick due to praying to God to give him the punishment he will feel in the future, so he would not feel so much pain in the next life download. No scholar gave a shirk or bid'ath fatwa on these either. Instead, they accept these and are debating the interpretation of the meaning. Now, let us come to the third lesson of Qur'an which teaches us about the zaath and Sifaath of Allah swt.

    The Ulamaye Rabbani Sufis have established certain isthilahaths usage and lessons on them. The orders and founders I have listed present strong support for the nature of Sufism as I have presented it in my paper - in stark contrast to the writings of many present day Islamic scholars. Ahmadiyya - [also Badawiyya] the name of a major Sufi order, established initially in Egypt. The order is immensely popular in present day Egypt. They relied on hunger to pave the way for themselves to the Hereafter. Historically, this mystical realm of Islam formed a powerful companion to the legal dimension of Islam sharia.

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